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Colon Cancer

Colon Cancer

Colon Cancer is a form of cancer that tends to originate in the colon or rectum, both of which are crucial parts of the digestive system. Both of these parts are needed for the elimination of waste. Typically, colon cancer develops from precancerous polyps and can take the shape of cancerous tumors if left untreated. The most common type of cancer is Adenocarcinoma. 

Symptoms of colon cancer may not be visible if the disease is in its infancy. However, the patients will experience changes in their bowel habits, extreme exhaustion, rectal bleeding, pain or discomfort in the abdomen, etc. Diagnosis can include a wide set of procedures, such as colonoscopy, imaging studies, fecal occult blood tests, etc., to understand the extent of cancer spread. 

Types of Colon Cancer



Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of cancer. Almost 95% of the total colon cancer cases revolve around adenocarcinoma. The cancer stems from the cells lining the inner surface of the colon or rectum. Typically, it develops from adenomatous polyps, which is a precancerous growth in the polyps. Adenocarcinoma develops slowly, so much so that the symptoms are not even visible while the disease is in its infancy.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

More often than not, this cancer type affects the skin, but it can also affect other organs within the body, including the colon (in the long run). Compared to adenocarcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma is quite rare in the colon. However, risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include Inflammatory Bowel Disease, previous radiation therapy, and certain genetic syndromes.

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are rare tumors that originate in the gastrointestinal tract, either in the stomach or the small intestine. However, these tumors can also develop in other parts of the GI tract, including the colon. GISTs develop from specialized cells, known as Intestinal Cells of Cajal, which regulate the movement of food and liquids through the digestive system. Most GISTs are benign, whilst some are malignant. Symptoms of GIST include bloating, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, etc.

Neuroendocrine Tumors

Neuroendocrine Tumors

Neuroendocrine Tumors are extremely rare tumors which develop from Neuroendocrine cells. These cells are found throughout the body and produce hormones. These tumors can occur in various parts of the body, including the digestive system and the colon. Neuroendocrine Tumors can be benign or malignant. The treatment procedure involves surgical interventions to remove the tumors.

The Symptoms of Colon Cancer

What Causes Colon Cancer?

The exact cause of colon cancer is not known. However, it stems from the precancerous polyps in the rectum or colon. Risk factors include age, lifestyle habits, such as smoking, inflammatory bowel diseases, family history, etc.

Risk Factors of Colon Cancer

Risk Factors of Colon Cancer

  • The risk of colon cancer tends to increase with age, especially after 50.
  • Having a close relative with either polyps or a history of colon cancer tends to increase the risk.
  • People with a prolonged history of inflammatory bowel diseases should get themselves screened for colon cancer.
  • Several conditions, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis, can expose an individual to colon cancer.
  • People with unhealthy lifestyle habits, such as excessive smoking and/or alcohol consumption, also tend to increase the risk.

Initial diagnosis of colon cancer would involve a review of the patient’s medical history. People experiencing discomfort in the bowel should get themselves tested. Diagnosis of colon cancer involves a combination of various methods, such as:

Colonoscopy: The procedure involves the use of a flexible tube with a camera. The tube is inserted into the patient’s colon to examine its lining. This is done in order to detect abnormalities, such as polyps. Biopsies can also be conducted in tandem with colonoscopy for detailed analysis. 

Fecal Occult Blood Test: This is a non-invasive test that detects the presence of blood in the person’s stool. It indicates the presence of precancerous polyps or colon cancer. 

Biopsy: The presence of cancer cells in the body can also be checked out by taking tissue samples. These samples are then examined under the microscope. 

Imaging Tests: Various imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRI scans, can also be conducted in order to find out the extent of the cancer’s spread. These tests can also be conducted to find tumors in the colon.

Stage I (When the cancer has not spread across the colon wall)

  • Colectomy, or surgical resection, is the primary treatment procedure. It aims to remove the cancerous portions of the colon, in addition to a few nearby lymph nodes.
  • Depending upon the extent of the surgery, chemotherapy may be recommended to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

Stage II: The Cancer Has Penetrated Through The Colon But Has Not Spread to the Nearby Lymph Nodes

  • Surgical resection, in addition to the removal of the nearby lymph nodes, is the primary treatment procedure.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered for a few patients to minimize the chances of cancer recurrence.

Stage III: The Cancer Has Spread to the Nearby Lymph Nodes

  • Surgical resection is conducted. Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended to minimize the chances of colon cancer recurrence.
  • The chemotherapy sessions conducted use a combination of several drugs, such as fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin, and oxaliplatin, to minimize the recurrence of the disease.

Stage IV: The Cancer is Metastatic And Has Spread to Distant Organs

  • The treatment procedure is extensive and involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, surgery, and immunotherapy.
  • Surgical resection of the tumor is considered in certain cases in order to prolong the survival of the patient.
  • Chemotherapy sessions involve the use of certain drugs, such as folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin.
  • Specific drugs may be used as part of targeted therapy, such as bevacizumab, cetuximab, or panitumumab, to treat certain cancer cells.

Treatment procedures for colon cancer would depend upon the stage (and extent) of the cancer. The medical condition and overall health of the patient is also taken into consideration while choosing the appropriate treatment procedure. Usually, the following treatment procedures are used:


  • Colectomy, or the surgical removal of the cancerous tumors from the nearby lymph nodes, is carried out.
  • It is done during the early stages of the disease.
  • A colostomy can also be performed for the elimination of waste in case the tumor to be removed is too big.


  • Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill the cancer cells. Also, it helps to avoid the recurrence of cancer-causing cells.
  • Chemotherapy can be done either before or after the surgery. if it’s done before the surgery, it is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy.If it is done after the surgery, it is called adjuvant chemotherapy.

Radiation Therapy

  • Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to destroy cancer cells or shrink cancer-causing tumors.
  • It may be used before surgery to shrink tumors and make them easier to remove. This is called neoadjuvant radiation therapy. If the same procedure is carried out after the surgery, it would be called adjuvant radiation therapy.


  • Immunotherapy drugs help the body’s immune system recognize an attack by cancer cells.
  • A wide set of drugs, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, may be used in patients with specific biomarkers such as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) tumors.

Target Therapy

  • Target therapy drugs specifically target the genetic mutations or proteins that contribute to the growth and spread of cancer cells.
  • A wide set of drugs, such as bevacizumab, cetuximab, and panitumumab, may be used in combination with chemotherapy for certain types of advanced colon cancer.

Preventing colon cancer involves a channelized framework that includes regular screenings and a set of healthy lifestyle habits. To begin with, a healthy diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes is important. Such a diet is rich in essential nutrients, fiber, and antioxidants, all of which help protect against colon cancer.Limiting the consumption of processed meats and alcohol can reduce the risk of colon cancer. It is extremely important to indulge in regular physical activity, as it helps maintain a healthy weight and promotes overall health and well-being.

Additionally, quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to secondary smoke can significantly lower the risk of developing colon cancer. Remain informed about your family’s medical history, especially regarding colon cancer or related conditions. It is important to allow individuals to understand the risk factors and make informed decisions about screenings and preventive measures.

The survival rate of Colon cancer is at least 5 years after diagnosis.

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The 5-year relative survival rate for colorectal cancer in the United States is 65%. This rate varies based on factors like cancer stage, age, and overall health, with localized cancers having a 91% survival rate compared to 73% for regional spread and 14% for distant spread. Colon cancer and rectal cancer have slightly different survival rates, with colon cancer having a 63% overall 5-year relative survival rate and rectal cancer having a 68% rate. Regular screenings and timely interventions significantly impact outcomes.

How Punarjan Clinic Treats Colon Cancer?

How Punarjan Clinic Treats Colon Cancer?

Punarjan Ayurveda stands as a beacon of hope for individuals battling thyroid cancer, offering a unique blend of ancient wisdom and modern medical science in the fight against this formidable disease. At our wellness center, we embrace the holistic principles of Ayurveda to address the complex needs of each individual with compassion and respect.

Our approach to treating thyroid cancer begins with a deep understanding of the patient’s condition and unique circumstances. A dedicated team of Ayurvedic doctors works closely with patients to develop personalized treatment plans that integrate the potent synergy of Ayurvedic herbs and therapies.

Holistic Approach, Authentic Methods

Through centuries-old knowledge passed down through generations, Punarjan Ayurveda harnesses the power of nature’s healing properties to combat thyroid cancer. Our herbal regimens, carefully crafted from the finest ingredients of the Indian Subcontinent, form the cornerstone of our treatment approach. These celestial Rasayana Ayurveda combos blend modern science with ancient tradition, drawing upon the pinnacle of medical knowledge to deliver optimal outcomes for our patients.

But our commitment to healing extends beyond the physical realm. Punarjan Ayurveda recognizes the intimate connection between the mind and body and offers a comprehensive approach to spiritual wellness.


Success Stories


Punarjan Clinic has been a ray of hope for Bibi, suffering from Colon cancer. She was told that without tumor removal, survival was unlikely, leaving her unable to eat or drink and in immense pain.

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Balaramadu is a 65-year-old man from Mahbubnagar District, he was faced with paralysis in his left hand and leg, only to discover he also had stomach cancer.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • What are the symptoms of colon cancer?

    Rectal bleeding, abdominal discomfort, extreme fatigue, changes in bowel habits, and stream weight loss are all symptoms of colon cancer.

  • Who is at risk of colon cancer?

    Middle-aged people, especially those over the age of 50. If your family members have a history of colon cancer or polyps, you should get yourself screened for colon cancer. Those with chronic bowel diseases also run the risk.

  • Who should get screened for colon cancer?

    People over 50 years of age and those with a history of bowel-oriented diseases should get themselves screened for colon cancer.

  • How can colon cancer be prevented?

    Eat a healthy diet, indulge in regular physical activity, and limit the consumption of alcohol and processed foods. Also, avoiding cigarettes would help avoid colon cancer.

  • What are the treatment options for colon cancer?

    Treatment options for colon cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, target therapy, and immunotherapy. The procedure chosen would depend upon the extent of the cancer spread. The patient’s overall health would also play its part whilst choosing a treatment procedure.