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Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer

Ovaries are a crucial part of the female reproductive system and are made up of three key types of cells, such as epithelial cells, germ cells and stromal cells. Cancer may originate from any of these cells of the ovaries and can be either benign or malignant in nature.

Epithelial ovarian tumors start in the outer layer of the ovaries and can be benign, borderline benign and malignant in nature. Malignant epithelial tumors can be further classified into serous carcinomas, clear cell carcinomas, mucinous carcinomas, and endometrioid carcinomas, with serous carcinomas being the most common variant.

Approximately 2% of ovarian cancers originate from the germ cells responsible for making the eggs in the ovaries. While most times, germ cell tumors are benign, the cancerous forms can be categorized into teratomas, dysgerminomas, endodermal sinus tumors, and choriocarcinomas. Ovarian stromal tumors are rarer than germ cell tumors and make up only 1% of the total ovarian cancer cases.

Different types of ovarian tumors may exhibit different symptoms and have different risk factors. Staying vigilant can help you seek on-time interventions.

The Types of Ovarian Cancer

Based on the cells of origin, ovarian cancer may manifest in different forms with different symptoms and management modalities.

Epithelial Tumors

Epithelial Tumors

This is the most common type of ovarian cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of cases. These tumors originate from the surface layer of the ovaries, called the epithelium.

Germ Cells Tumors

Germ Cells Tumors

Less common than epithelial tumors, Germ cells tumors accounts for about 2-3% of ovarian cancers. They arise from the egg cells or from cells that normally develop into eggs . These tumors are more common in younger women, including teenagers.

Stromal Cell Tumors

Stromal Cell Tumors

This is the rarest type of ovarian cancer, accounting for less than 7% of cases. They develop from the connective tissue within the ovary that produces hormones . These tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

The Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

What Causes Ovarian Cancer?

The exact cause of ovarian cancer is yet to be recognized. However, certain acquired and inherited genetic mutations may put a woman at a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.

Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer

Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer

  • Age
  • Obesity
  • Having children at an advanced age
  • Never having a full-term pregnancy
  • Hormonal therapy after menopause
  • Family history
  • Having family cancer syndromes, such as HBOC, HNPCC, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and MUTYH-associated polyps

The diagnosis of ovarian cancer involves a medical history analysis as the first step wherein your healthcare provider will assess your potential risk factors and symptoms that you might be experiencing. 

If your pelvic exam results indicate that you might have ovarian cancer, your gynecologic oncologist will recommend either surgery or other treatment modalities. Imaging tests, such as ultrasounds, CT scans, barium enema x-ray, MRI scans, PET scans and other diagnostic measures, such as laparoscopy, colonoscopy, biopsy, etc. can also be leveraged to arrive at data-backed ovarian cancer diagnosis. 

If you have a family history of ovarian cancer, you might be recommended for genetic counseling to chart out the best course of treatment and management interventions.

Stage I – Surgical interventions that involve removing the entire uterus, fallopian tubes, and both ovaries are often the initial course of treatment for stage I ovarian cancer. Considering the scope for relapse, most women might need further treatment post surgery, which depends on the subtype of the cancer. For stage IA, IB and IC grade 1 subtype, women might not need additional treatments while for grade 2 and 3 subtypes, chemotherapy might be administered to eliminate cancer cells that might have come back. 

Stage II – Surgical interventions and intraperitoneal chemotherapy are often recommended for stage II ovarian cancer.

Stage III – For most subtypes of stage III ovarian cancer, surgery is often followed by intraperitoneal chemo and intravenous chemo. Women for whom surgery is not a viable option, chemotherapy can be administered as the first step of treatment. Maintenance therapy might also be recommended to prevent the risk of cancer relapse. 

Stage IV – Surgery, targeted drug therapy, and maintenance therapy are the most recommended courses of treatment for advanced-stage ovarian cancers.

Surgery – Surgical interventions for epithelial ovarian cancer mainly aim at staging and debulking. Surgery for germ cell and stromal cell ovarian tumors, the objective of surgery is to remove the cancer. While hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy are administered for germ cell ovarian tumors, the cancer-affected ovary is removed through surgery in stromal cell ovarian tumors.

Radiation Therapy – In the U.S., aggressive chemotherapy is deemed more effective than radiation therapy. However, radiation therapy that uses high-energy x-rays to eliminate cancer cells can be administered on the regions where the cancer has spread. External beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy are the most common types of radiation therapy recommended for treating ovarian cancer.

Chemotherapy – Chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian tumors are often administered in the intraperitoneal manner. Chemo for germ cell ovarian tumors often use a combination of drugs, known as BEEP, for eliminating cancer cells and preventing a relapse. It is not usually recommended for stromal cell ovarian tumors.

Hormone Therapy – Hormone therapy leverages hormones or hormone-blocking drugs to fight cancer. While this systemic treatment modality is rarely recommended for epithelial ovarian tumors, this is ideal for stromal cancers. LHRH agonists, Tamoxifen, and aromatase inhibitors are the commonly used drugs for hormone therapy.

Targeted Drug Therapy – Drugs, such as bevacizumab, PARP inhibitors, drugs to target folate receptor-alpha and NTRK gene changes are leveraged for targeting cancer cells and eliminating them. However, there are multiple side effects of these drugs and thus, you should consult your healthcare provider before opting for targeted drug therapy.

Immunotherapy – Immunotherapy plays a pivotal role in equipping one’s immune system to identify and eliminate cancer cells on its own. However, at times, one’s immune system can get aggressive and attack healthy cells too. At such a juncture, immune checkpoint inhibitors are leveraged to prevent the immune system from attacking healthy cells.

Most women tend to have one or more risk factors for ovarian cancer. However, that does not necessarily mean that they will develop ovarian cancer at some point in life. Understanding these risk factors and managing them optimally can help prevent ovarian cancer. 

Taking oral contraceptives, opting for gynecologic surgery, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and other healthier lifestyle choices can help prevent ovarian cancer up to a certain extent.

The survival rate of Ovarian cancer is at least 5 years after diagnosis.

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The five-year survival rate for ovarian cancer varies by stage: Stage I has a survival rate of 89%, Stage II is 71%, Stage III is 41%, and Stage IV is 20% (“Ovarian Cancer Stage 5-Year Survival”). This statistic underscores the importance of early detection and treatment in improving outcomes for individuals with ovarian cancer.

How Punarjan Clinic Treats Ovarian Cancer?

How Punarjan Clinic Treats Ovarian Cancer?

Punarjan Clinic, a beacon of holistic healing, artfully integrates herbal formulations and the profound science of Rasayana Ayurveda to address ovarian cancer with unparalleled dedication. Beyond symptom management, our practitioners meticulously uncover the root causes, tailoring treatment plans that exemplify our distinctive approach.

Our therapeutic journey unfolds as a carefully orchestrated sequence—a fusion of herbal medicines, detoxification therapies, personalized diet regimens, and transformative lifestyle adjustments. Each step is a purposeful stride toward reinstating equilibrium and vitality in the body, creating an environment conducive to recovery.

Acknowledging the emotional and psychological challenges that accompany an ovarian cancer diagnosis, we cultivate a compassionate sanctuary. Within this haven, individuals openly articulate their hopes, fears, and worries to our adept counselors.

Our mission extends beyond the physical realm; we empower individuals to embrace a healthy and peaceful life, drawing strength from within to confront adversity. The sacred bond between doctor and patient lies at our core, fostering open communication and unwavering trust.

The intricate dance of tracking development and making essential corrections necessitates a comprehensive strategy, seamlessly merging traditional Ayurvedic wisdom with contemporary diagnostics. Choosing Punarjan Clinic is an embrace of optimal healing—honoring nature’s power, receiving personalized care, and joining a compassionate community.

With reverence for nature’s inherent strength, personalized care, and the embrace of a compassionate community, we extend a heartfelt invitation to embark on a transformative journey toward health, happiness, and a future free from the shadows of ovarian cancer.



Success Stories


Punarjan Clinic saved my life. When I was told I had eye cancer and needed more tests and chemotherapy, I felt scared. But then I found this hospital.

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Punarjan Clinic has been a ray of hope for Bibi, suffering from Colon cancer. She was told that without tumor removal, survival was unlikely, leaving her unable to eat or drink and in immense pain.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • What are the early symptoms of ovarian cancer?

    Early symptoms of ovarian cancer may include bloating, pelvic pain, changes in bowel habits, and frequent urination. It's crucial to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent or unusual symptoms

  • How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?

    Diagnosis of ovarian cancer involves a combination of pelvic examinations, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scans), blood tests (CA-125), and often, a biopsy. Early detection is essential for effective treatment.

  • What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer?

    Risk factors of ovarian cancer include age, family history, certain gene mutations (BRCA1, BRCA2), personal history of breast or colorectal cancer, and endometriosis. Understanding these factors aids in preventive measures.

  • What are the treatment options for ovarian cancer?

    Treatment of ovarian cancer may involve surgery (hysterectomy, removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes), chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. Treatment plans are personalized based on the cancer stage and type.

  • Is ovarian cancer hereditary?

    Some cases of ovarian cancer might have a hereditary component, especially with BRCA gene mutations. Genetic counseling and testing may be recommended for individuals with a family history of ovarian or breast cancer.

  • Can ovarian cancer be cured?

    The prognosis depends on factors such as the cancer stage, type, and response to treatment. Early detection and comprehensive treatment enhance the chances of successful outcomes.

  • Are there clinical trials for ovarian cancer treatments?

    Yes, ongoing clinical trials explore new treatments and therapies. Participation in these trials may offer access to cutting-edge interventions. Consultation with healthcare providers can determine eligibility and suitability for clinical trial involvement.