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Liver Cancer

Liver Cancer

Liver cancer is a malignancy that impacts the liver, a vital organ responsible for your body’s metabolism, nutrient absorption and other health aspects. Liver cancer may originate from the cells in the liver and can be either benign or malignant in nature. 

Liver cancer can be further categorized into primary and secondary cancer. While primary liver cancer may start in the liver secondary liver cancer usually starts in another organ and spreads to the liver in due course of time. 

According to the American Cancer Society, liver cancer is on the rise in the United States, with an estimated 42,230 new cases in 2022 alone. Understanding the causes, risk factors and watching out for symptoms can help you and your healthcare provider chart out the necessary course of prevention, treatment and management roadmap

The Types of Liver Cancer

Liver cancers can be primary or secondary in nature.

hepatocellular carcinoma

hepatocellular carcinoma

The most common type of liver cancer, usually associated with chronic liver diseases like cirrhosis.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

A cancer that develops in the bile ducts within the liver, often diagnosed at an advanced stage.



A rare and aggressive cancer that forms in the blood vessels of the liver, often difficult to treat.



Another rare type of liver cancer that develops in the blood vessels, also known for its aggressiveness.



A rare liver cancer that usually affects children under the age of 5, with a relatively good prognosis if diagnosed early.



A benign tumor made up of blood vessels, usually small and asymptomatic, often found incidentally during imaging tests for other conditions.

Hepatic adenoma

Hepatic adenoma

A rare, benign liver tumor that typically occurs in women of childbearing age, often associated with the use of oral contraceptives.

Focal nodular hyperplasia

Focal nodular hyperplasia

A benign liver lesion that consists of abnormal blood vessels and hepatocytes (liver cells), often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally.

The Symptoms of Liver Cancer

What Causes Liver Cancer?

While genetic dispositions are often linked with liver cancer, exposure to certain chemicals, hepatitis virus and other factors can be considered the primary causes of liver cancer. 

Risk Factors of Liver Cancer

Risk Factors of Liver Cancer

  • Chronic Viral Hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
  • Alcohol Consumption
  • Diabetes
  • Family History
  • Aflatoxins Exposure
  • Obesity
  • Iron Storage Disease
  • Tobacco Use

Diagnosing liver cancer involves a comprehensive approach, combining medical history review, physical examinations, and various diagnostic tests. Here is an overview of the key steps in the diagnostic process:

Medical History and Physical Examination:

The healthcare provider assesses the patient’s medical history, including risk factors such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and family history. A physical examination may reveal signs of liver disease.

Blood Tests:

Blood tests assess liver function and may detect elevated levels of certain markers, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), associated with liver cancer.

Imaging Studies:

Imaging tests provide detailed images of the liver and surrounding structures, helping to identify tumors. Common imaging modalities include ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans.


A liver biopsy involves obtaining a small tissue sample from the liver for laboratory analysis. This confirms the presence of cancer, determines its type, and helps guide treatment decisions.


In some cases, an endoscopy may be performed to examine the digestive tract. This is particularly relevant if there is suspicion of cancer spreading to the bile duct.


Angiography involves injecting contrast material into blood vessels to visualize the blood supply to the liver. It can help identify abnormalities such as tumor blood vessels.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan:

PET scans may be used to determine the extent of cancer spread by detecting areas with high metabolic activity.

The treatment approach for liver cancer varies depending on the stage of the disease. Here’s an overview of stage-specific treatments:

Early Stage (Stage 0 and I):

Surgery (Resection): Surgical removal of the tumor or a portion of the liver may be considered if the cancer is confined to a specific area and the liver function is sufficient.

Intermediate Stage (Stage II and III):

  • Surgery (Resection or Liver Transplant): Depending on the extent and location of tumors, surgery may still be an option. In some cases, liver transplantation may be considered.
  • Ablation Therapy: Techniques such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or microwave ablation may be used to destroy cancerous cells.
  • Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE): This procedure involves delivering chemotherapy directly to the tumor via the blood vessels supplying the liver, often combined with blocking the blood supply to the tumor.

Advanced Stage (Stage IV):

  • Systemic Therapy: Chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy are commonly used to treat advanced liver cancer that has spread beyond the liver. These treatments target cancer cells throughout the body.
  • Palliative Care: Focuses on symptom management and improving the patient’s quality of life, especially when curative treatments are no longer viable.
  • Clinical Trials: Participation in clinical trials exploring novel therapies may be an option for some patients with advanced liver cancer.

Recurrent Liver Cancer:

  • Repeat Surgical Interventions: If the cancer recurs in the liver and is localized, additional surgery or other localized treatments may be considered.
  • Systemic Therapies: Chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy may be used to manage recurrent liver cancer.

Liver cancer treatment methods are tailored to the specific characteristics of the cancer, its stage, and the overall health of the patient. Here are key liver cancer treatment methods:


  • Hepatectomy (Liver Resection): Surgical removal of a portion of the liver containing the tumor.
  • Liver Transplantation: In select cases, a liver transplant may be considered for individuals with early-stage liver cancer and suitable donor availability.

Ablation Therapy:

  • Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA): High-frequency electrical currents are used to heat and destroy cancerous cells.
  • Microwave Ablation: Similar to RFA, but uses microwaves for tissue destruction.
  • Cryoablation: Involves freezing cancer cells using a probe.

Transarterial Therapies:

  • Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE): Chemotherapy drugs are directly delivered to the tumor through the blood vessels, often combined with blocking the blood supply to the tumor.
  • Transarterial Radioembolization (TARE): Radioactive microspheres are delivered to the tumor through the blood vessels.

Systemic Therapies:

  • Chemotherapy: Anti-cancer drugs are administered orally or intravenously to target cancer cells throughout the body.
  • Targeted Therapy: Drugs that specifically target molecules involved in cancer growth and progression.
  • Immunotherapy: Boosting the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells.

Palliative Care:

  • Focuses on alleviating symptoms, improving quality of life, and providing emotional support, particularly in advanced stages or when curative treatments are not feasible.

The survival rate of Liver cancer is at least 5 years after diagnosis.

survial arrow

The survival rate for liver cancer can vary depending on several factors, including the stage at diagnosis, the underlying liver health, and the treatment received. For the 43% of people who are diagnosed with liver cancer at an early stage, the 5-year relative survival rate is 36%. but this can vary widely based on individual circumstances.
Early detection and appropriate treatment can improve the chances of long-term survival.

How Punarjan Clinic Treats Liver Cancer?

How Punarjan Clinic Treats Liver Cancer?

At Punarjan Clinic, our commitment to restoring health extends beyond mere symptom alleviation – it delves into the profound principles of Rasayana Ayurveda. In addressing liver cancer, our practitioners meticulously decipher the intricate web of causative factors, paving the way for a uniquely tailored treatment plan.

Our distinctive approach involves a sequential integration of herbal formulations, detoxification therapies, specialized dietary regimens, and lifestyle adjustments. This methodical chain of interventions is designed to not only target the disease but to reestablish harmony within the body.

Recognizing that healing transcends the physical realm, our strategy extends to the emotional and psychological dimensions that often accompany a liver cancer diagnosis. Within our compassionate environment, individuals find solace in sharing their hopes, fears, and worries with our empathetic counselors.

We firmly believe in the sanctity of the doctor-patient connection, fostering open communication and trust. The journey involves meticulous tracking of developments, allowing us to make necessary corrections. Our comprehensive strategy seamlessly integrates traditional Ayurvedic wisdom with contemporary diagnostic methods.

Choosing Punarjan Clinic signifies a commitment to the most effective healing approach. Rooted in nature’s power, each individual receives personalized care within our compassionate community. Join us on a path towards health, happiness, and a future liberated from the constraints of liver cancer, where empowerment and well-being converge


Success Stories


Punarjan Clinic saved my life. When I was told I had eye cancer and needed more tests and chemotherapy, I felt scared. But then I found this hospital.

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Punarjan Clinic has been a ray of hope for Bibi, suffering from Colon cancer. She was told that without tumor removal, survival was unlikely, leaving her unable to eat or drink and in immense pain.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • What are the common symptoms of liver cancer?

    Symptoms may include unexplained weight loss, abdominal pain, swelling, jaundice, and changes in appetite. Early detection is crucial, so seek medical attention if experiencing these signs.

  • How is liver cancer diagnosed?

    Diagnosis involves a combination of medical history review, blood tests, imaging studies (CT, MRI), and biopsy. Early diagnosis enhances treatment options and outcomes.

  • What are the risk factors for liver cancer?

    Major risk factors include chronic viral hepatitis (B or C), cirrhosis, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, and exposure to aflatoxins. Understanding and addressing these factors is essential for prevention.

  • Can liver cancer be prevented?

    While prevention is not guaranteed, lifestyle choices such as hepatitis vaccinations, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and regular screenings for high-risk individuals can lower the risk.

  • What are the treatment options for liver cancer?

    Treatment varies by stage and may include surgery (resection or transplantation), ablation therapy, transarterial therapies, systemic therapies (chemotherapy, targeted therapy), and palliative care. Treatment plans are personalized.

  • Is liver cancer hereditary?

    While most cases are not directly hereditary, a family history of certain liver conditions can increase the risk. Regular screenings are recommended for individuals with a family history.

  • Can liver cancer be cured?

    The potential for cure depends on the cancer stage, overall health, and treatment response. Early-stage cancers and those eligible for surgical interventions may offer curative possibilities.

  • Are there clinical trials for liver cancer treatments?

    Yes, clinical trials explore innovative treatments. Participation may offer access to cutting-edge therapies. Consultation with healthcare providers can determine eligibility and suitability for clinical trial involvement.